Muslims believe that the Quran was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in this month. In the Qur'an, believers are directly ordered to fast in this month.
The history of fasting can be introduced from the time of Adam Abul Bashar. Although there have been differences in the manner of fasting, but the principle of this great worship has been constant from the beginning until now. Fasting is an ancient worship that can be traced back to the presence of Adam (pbuh) on earth and after his departure from heaven. Various narrations and hadiths have discussed the age of fasting and its nature among different nations.
The famous commentator, Allameh Tabarsi writes: "Fasting has been considered among the prophets and their ummah since the time of Adam until now. Amirul Momineen (AS) says: Fasting is an old form of worship that God has not exempted any nation from. We also read in the verses of the Qur'an: Those who have believed, fasting has become obligatory for you as it was prescribed for the predecessors.
Imam Baqir (a.s.) said about this: "Fasting was always obligatory in the month of Ramadan, and this was obligatory only for the Prophets, and fasting was obligatory for their ummah during non-Ramadan, but the ummah of Muhammad (pbuh) is a special favor of God." In this sense, they were placed in the ranks of the prophets.
A man asked Ibn Abbas, one of the leading commentators of the Qur'an, about how the chosen people of history fasted. Ibn Abbas replied: "The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: The best fast is the fasting of my brother David the Prophet, who used to fast one day and break his fast one day throughout the year. In every month, Soleyman fasted the first three days of the month, the middle three days, and the last three days of the month.
The Prophet of Islam (PBUH) used to fast in the first, middle and last month of every month and said: This is always fasting.
When Maryam gave birth to Jesus, they said to her: O Maryam! Your mother, who was a good person, how did you have a child without a husband? Maryam pointed to her son and said: You bear witness to my chastity. Jesus (pbuh) spoke at the command of God and informed about the purity of his mother. When they told Maryam why you don't speak up yourself and ask for help from the child, she replied: I have vowed to fast and not talk to anyone and I must remain in wise silence.
In his prayer, Hazrat Musa (pbuh) asked for the secret of the superiority of the nation of Muhammad (pbuh) over other nations. There was a call that the nation of Muhammad (pbuh) is superior to other nations because of ten characteristics, including fasting in the holy month of Ramadan. Musa also asked: Have you honored someone like me? The call came: I have servants at the end of time whom I honored through the month of Ramadan.
In general, at all times, fasting has been common among every sect, nation and religion, at the time of unexpected sorrow and hardship. The Jewish people often fasted when they had the opportunity to express their helplessness and humility in front of God, to confess their sins and gain God's approval through fasting and repentance. With further investigation, we can conclude that fasting existed in the past nations as well, but not in the month of Ramadan, and only the prophets fasted in the month of Ramadan.
Also, in other than the Quran, the issue of fasting has also been narrated from non-religious peoples, just as it has been narrated from the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, ancient Romans and even Indian pagans until today that each of them had and are fasting for themselves, but It can be said that fasting is one of the things that human nature dictates.
In the second year of Hijrah, fasting was announced to Muslims. Although Muslims knew that fasting is the concern of the Messenger of God; Because he used to fast sometimes.
Translator: fatemeh abbaszadeh.